Nutrition for endurance
7 Dietary supplements: Recommendations for dietary supplements
When we completed the 10-kilometer race, I was approached by a runner. It was all red and complained of severe itching. I asked if he any supplements or medications before the competition. He replied that he took a large dose of Niacin before the race. His girlfriend worked in the health food store and told him about the dietary Supplement, which could expand blood vessels and improve performance. Runner not only experienced the unpleasant symptoms during the race, but finished with one of its
The COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION AND HEALTH USA recommends that people avoid taking vitamin and mineral supplements that exceed 100% of the recommended daily needs for nutrients (the nutrients). Most people can get these vital nutrients without dietary supplements* 5 due to the variety of food.
The Committee draws attention to possible exemptions for pregnant women or mothers who are breastfeeding, women with bleeding lasting more than a month, people who are on low-calorie diet, strict vegetarians and people suffering from malabsorption syndrome (disorders of digestion and absorption of nutrients in the intestine. However, the necessity of taking vitamin and mineral supplements for these individuals should be determined by the physician according to each specific case.
Most U.S. health authorities agree that for athletes who do not fall under either of these categories, receiving a simple vitamin and mineral supplements are safe provided that it does not exceed 100% of the recommended consumption norms for nutritional
5 From the editor. In the United States and other countries as a dietary Supplement, also called food additives (food supplements) or bio-additives biological additives, in Russia-biologically active additives (BAA) to food. Abroad and in Russia there is a similar-sounding term – dietary supplements (food additives – food dobavitelj). When the similarity of the names of the SUPPLEMENTS and dietary supplements is a fundamentally different groups of substances, used for different purposes. A food additive is “technological additives”, they are used in the manufacture of products to give them the desired organoleptic properties (colors, flavors, etc.), for the best safety products (preservatives), to facilitate processing of the products (emulsifiers, defoamers, etc.), etc. Dietary Supplement in contrast to diet additives have no nutritional value and should not be used in doses biological activity, i.e. to affect the metabolism and function of individual organs and systems.
substances. However, there is no evidence that additional supplementation is useful. Adequate food becomes better due to the dietary supplements, just as inadequate nutrition will not be because of them “perfect”.
Although dietary supplements are recommended to meet individual needs with little food, a balanced diet is still the best source of nutrients. In addition to the many different nutrients, the food also contains healthy bioactive compounds that affect the metabolism and function of individual organs and systems. Supplements do not contain these compounds in the same chemical form or proportions as they are in food. Taking ascorbic acid, the athlete does not receive glucose, fructose and sucrose, folic acid, carotenes, bioflavonoids, potassium, dietary fiber and other nutrients that he could get from eating an orange.
In addition, the food consist of nutrients is often more rational than supplements. For example, milk contains calcium and lactose – milk sugar. Lactose enhances calcium absorption from the intestine. Most calcium supplements do not contain lactose.
Nutritional science is still relatively young. Food may contain nutrients that still have not been found. It is a balanced diet with variety of foods, not supplements, is the most reliable way to achieve sufficient power. Vitamin and mineral supplements, as an alternative to a responsible choice of products that can adversely affect physical performance, because it does not take into account the composition of the diet (carbohydrates, proteins, fats and calories). In addition, for the same money, with food, you will get more nutrients than with dietary supplements.
Daily intake of a variety of products from the “Food pyramid” reduces the need for additional vitamin-mineral supplements. If you want to “insure” themselves against food shortages, consume more foods of high nutritional value – whole grains, fruits, berries, vegetables, legumes and less empty calories – sugar, fat and alcohol.
An excess of vitamins and minerals
The intake of vitamins and minerals in doses exceeding the upper permissible level of consumption may be dangerous to health. Consumption of large doses of vitamins and minerals can cause serious side effects, and also disrupt the delicate balance of these nutrients in the body.
The intake of fat-soluble vitamins A and D for a long time in doses exceeding the needs of your body, can cause serious toxic effects. Prolonged intake of high doses of vitamin A can lead to loss of appetite, headache, irritability, impaired liver, pain in the bones. Prolonged intake of large doses of vitamin D
can lead to weight loss, vomiting, irritability, destructive deposits of excess calcium in the soft tissues (kidneys and lungs) and renal failure, potentially life-threatening. Similar phenomena occur very quickly and in conjunction with excessive intake of vitamin D.
In excess of the needs of water-soluble vitamins, their excess is excreted in the urine. Thus, despite the increase in the concentration of vitamins in the urine, the operability improves. In addition, large doses of water-soluble vitamins can cause side effects. Some bodybuilders (bodybuilders, build muscle) I take large doses of Niacin (vitamin PP) to expand and highlight the blood vessels. However, excessive consumption of Niacin can cause fluid retention, skin disorders, liver damage, stomach ulcers and impaired glucose level in the blood. Large doses of Niacin also accelerate the depletion of glycogen reserves. Niacin may be useful in the treatment of high cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. However, it should never be used for this purpose without medical supervision.
Large doses of vitamin C are associated with diarrhea (diarrhea), stone formation in the kidneys and poor absorption of copper. Vitamin C also increases the risk of saturation of iron in the body in sensitive individuals due to the increased iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
High doses of vitamin E can neutralize the effect of vitamin K and lead to increased bleeding time. The additional intake of vitamin E may be contraindicated for people taking anticoagulants – drugs that increase the clotting time of blood and preventing the formation of blood clots in the vessels, or dietary supplements containing polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 (e.g., Maxepa, Eikonal, Polien, etc.) operating in similar anticoagulants direction.
Toxicity of vitamin b 6 (pyridoxine) is confirmed on the women who took the supplements for relief of premenstrual symptoms. An excess of vitamin b 6 can cause neurological symptoms such as numbness and trembling of the hands, the deterioration of motor function and backache in the lumbar region. Toxic effect was observed in people taking up to 200 mg of vitamin.
Like fat-soluble vitamins excessive amount of minerals deposited in the body and can reach toxic levels. Excess of one mineral substances may interfere with the action of another. For example, high intake of iron can lead to iron overload (hemochromatosis) in genetically susceptible people and cause deficiency of zinc and copper. If you do not seek treatment, hemochromatosis can damage liver, pancreas and heart.
Although iron deficiency is more common than an overdose of iron-containing dietary supplements and the more medicinal iron supplements should only be applied in establishing the diagnosis of iron deficiency, including iron deficiency anemia.